Opposite’s Attract, Likes Repel, and Space-Time Reconciles


By Dale M. Crouse


Illustrations by Anthony V. Talbot








Table of Contents


Abstract. 3

Unity. 3

Asymmetries. 4

Spin. 4

Charge. 7

Atoms - Hydrogen. 8

Space-Time. 11

Molecules - Hydrogen. 12

Chemistry. 13

Phases. 14

Neutrons - Helium.. 15

Reconciliation. 18

Love. 20

Assumptions. 21

References. 21




Opposite’s Attract, Likes Repel, Space-Time Reconciles

All things are made of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another.

Richard P. Feynman – Six Easy Pieces


When individuals separate, asymmetries occur within the unity.  This separation occurs when the individual particle moves away from other particles and/or spins.  The asymmetry created is reconciled by fields in space-time. Because space-time geometry is Riemannian, motions of particles are cyclical.  The particle pairs with another of opposite symmetry using the field information in space-time, to minimize the force effects (opposites attract).  The spinning particle creates its own frame of reference. Each particle has “no force” or is like “at rest” in its own frame of reference.  If the particles cross a field or compress a field, a force causes the particle to respond (likes repel).  A special case of the “no force” condition is movement of a particle orthogonal to a central attraction force providing circular motion and is a “repulsion” that balances the attraction force. 

Under certain rules of space-time, the particle can translate (remove) the motions of the fields (absorb energy from environment) into revised motions of the mass.  Also, the particle can translate the mass motions into field motions (emit energy). 

To achieve unity then, a system can either slow its motions to a stop or pair asymmetries, so it is at rest in its frame of reference.  The principles are illustrated with electrons, protons, and neutrons making perpetual motion systems called atoms. The principles are also illustrated using atoms making systems called mass.  If a mass stops moving, it ceases as a separate individual.  If a mass pairs with its neighbors, a beauty of complexity guided by unity is achieved. 



What are the rules?  Is there unity – one principle rule from which all other rules are derived?  I believe there is.  If we know the principle rule and all the derivative rules, then we will be able to understand everything that happens, right?  Yes, in an abstract way, but then “no” because the branching (called asymmetries) makes it too complex to predict.  However, we will be able to explain history because we can see what road was taken when two roads diverged.  The unity rule for activity or motion is: opposites attract, likes repel, and space-time reconciles the activity of moving objects.



There are many asymmetries in the universe but several are listed for discussion in this paper  

(1)                          If a particle is added to the void, there needs to be an antiparticle added also.   Science has created mass by passing high energy near concentrated mass (e.g. gamma rays near [nucleus of] atom have disappeared and both an electron and positron were created – Cartoon Physics and also About Time )

(2)                          If a second mass particle is added to the void, a frame of reference must be established to describe the location of each since they can’t occupy the same space at the same time.  The size of the mass particle relative to the first is often asymmetric, one larger than the other.  Usually the center of the larger particle is the frame of reference for the system.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       

(3)                          If the particle spins (rotates around an axis through the center of the particle), there needs to be an opposite spin particle i.e.if the spin is clockwise, there needs to be a counterclockwise spin. The particles are mirror images of each other, with respect to spins. 

(4)                          If a particle moves in space consuming time, there needs to be motion of a particle (anti-particle?) in the opposite direction providing time symmetry[1].  If a smaller particle rotates around the larger particle (orbits) in a counterclockwise direction, there needs to be a particle of the same characteristics orbiting clockwise, providing space symmetry.        

(5)                          If a particle has a positive charge, there has to be a particle with an equal negative charge providing charge symmetry.  


An individual object can be seen as “at rest”, spinning, or moving with respect to an external frame of reference.  These differences will impact how the object interacts with the forces from the external frame of reference. 

Particles spin and the direction chosen is reconciled in the same space by an anti-particle moving in the opposite direction (canceling time asymmetry).  Spin allows the object freedom or independence from the external influences.   The axis of spin does have an orientation (defined as the z axis) with respect to other frames of reference.  The properties are asymmetric along the z axis versus the x and y axis.   Spin directions are CW or CCW viewed from top of z.





            The spinning system maintains its integrity in the presence of another system.  As the forces from another system impact it, the spinning object undergoes collision and recoil unless the field motions are consistent with its internal motions.  The first impact is at some distance from the object due to the force fields from the other system i.e. the modifications of space-time by the object are called fields.  If, however, the other objects field motions are right, the spinning system tilts its axis of spin in a precession motion.  The base of the cone from the precession self describes the center of the spinning systems frame of reference, a point at the center of a space-time frame of reference.  Orbits are postulated to be the precessions of detached spinning mass in a spinning system. 





            Fundamental sub-atomic particles (i.e. proton, electron, and neutron) all have the same spin angular momentum (called ½).  This angular momentum equality compensates for mass, mass density, and charge differences.  Mass made of electrically neutral atoms, have different angular momentum based on the distance the individual masses are from the axis of system rotation and the angular rotation rate of each individual mass particle. Equal masses distributed on the spherical surface when the overall system is spinning will add the greatest angular momentum if they are at the equator and the least angular momentum if at the poles of the system. Angular Momentum is conserved.  A mass stays at rest or uniform motion unless a force from an external system interacts with it. This inertia principle applies in the General Relativity understanding of space as Riemannian versus Euclidian.  In the absence of an external torque, angular momentum of a spinning system is unchanged.  Angular momentum along the surface of a circle/sphere is more fundamental than linear momentum along the radius/diameter.  


When mass has a charge, the charge is uniformly distributed on the surface of the sphere. 

When a charged sphere spins the charge elements near the equator have the greater effect, tapering off to the charge elements at the poles that have no effect.  This asymmetry of spinning charge makes the magnetic poles.  The direction of the magnet depends on the direction of spin, cw or ccw.             



Positive Charge is attracted to the Negative Charge of a neighboring mass.  The force of attraction, called electric force, is linear between centers of the mass and drops off inversely as the square of the distance separating them.  Two materials with like charge repel each other.   Spinning charge generating a magnetic force has a similar effect. The North Pole of a magnet is attracted to the South Pole of a neighboring magnet.   But bring two magnets together at their south poles and it seems impossible to get them to touch.  However the repulsion direction doesn’t seem to be opposite the attraction direction but orthogonal to the line joining the magnet centers. 

An electron (negative charge) and positron (positive charge) are particles with the same numerical amount of mass and charge, but opposite charge. The positron is called an anti-particle.  Richard Feynman used opposite times as equivalent to opposite charge and mass (negative time for anti-particles).  Also, in general relativity, time is imaginary (negative) to balance space being positive e.g. x2 + y2 + z2 –c2t2 = 0.  There is symmetry to all creation – mass to energy, space to time, positive direction to negative direction, and mass to anti-mass.  Superimposed Electron/Positron pairs with opposite spins are very near a unity of all these asymmetries.

Atoms - Hydrogen 

A simple solution to many asymmetries caused by separations of particles and their mass, charge, and spin, is the atom.  The simplest atom is hydrogen and represents the overwhelming majority of the mass in the universe at this time.  It is made of one positively charged particle, a proton, and one negatively charged particle, an electron.   The attraction of opposite charges brought the much smaller mass  electron to within a short distance of the proton.  The way the attraction motion occurred was the proton positive charge distorted space-time in such a way that the electron, a negative charge (making a opposite distortion of space-time), moved toward it.  The difference in the size of the masses was also an “opposite”.   The larger mass of the proton distorted space-time and also attracted the smaller mass of the electron (making a smaller distortion of space-time), the same as the positive charge attracted the negative charge.  This attraction force of neutral mass (called gravity) is much smaller than the electric attraction force (due to opposite charge).  However, each particle sees the sum of the “opposites attract” forces.  Both these would cause the electron to move linearly toward the proton. 

But both the particles are spinning around their own axis.  Spin allows the particles freedom or independence from the each other.  As long as they were spinning they can’t consummate the attraction forces by touching. 



Since they are spinning, as the distance between them diminishes, the smaller mass electron spin couples with the proton spin by going into an orbital motion[2] at right angles to the radial line between their centers. Both the mass and charge forces are impacted by the spin.  The electron tries to find the location and motion where there is “no force” (AND THERE IS NO FORCE IF THE MASS/CHARGE IS MOVING ALONG A FIELD, not across field lines).  Since all the field line are moving in this rotation, the electron tries to keep up so it feels “no force”.  The electron angular velocity accelerates as the distance from the proton diminishes because the attraction force field is getting larger.

At the right combination of angular velocity and radial distance, the motions become stable, the electron feels no net force, and the hydrogen atom is a perpetual motion machine. The natural selection process for smaller mass electrons in atoms results in orbital velocities about 1% of the speed of light at a radial distance about 10-12meter from the center of the larger mass proton.  







Top View

Hydrogen Atom


How does an atom interact with its environment, called space-time? Atoms have sufficiently balanced their internal motions that they do not have a magnetic field due to circulating charge.  However in the presence of an external field (e.g. electromagnetic or gravitational) the internal motions can be unbalanced, absorbing energy from the external fields in space-time and changing internal motions.   The atom gets a magnetic field called a “dipole moment” from the imbalance caused by an external electromagnetic field.   Atoms absorb energy moving the motion of the electron orbit farther from the nucleus taking free space and converting it into space occupied by the atom. Even the spin states of the electron, proton, and neutron can be made to separate into higher and lower energy by and external field.  The energy state of the atom is slightly higher when the spins are aligned compared to when they are not aligned.





The density of charge differs in the atom.  The proton, called the positive charge, has a mass 1830 times the electron, called the negative charge.   This asymmetry in size for charge mass in atoms is similar to the large difference is size of stable gravity systems.   The orbiting mass or orbiting negative mass is smaller than the central mass or positive mass (gravitational and electrical fields), by convention considered “at rest” to make the mathematics describing the spinning system easier.  Is the lower charge “density” on the proton versus the electron charge density compensated by its larger mass in some way?  Also the rotation (orbit) direction of the electron is probably compensated by its related positrons rotation in the opposite direction, which would cause the orbiting antiparticles to be no longer superimposed in space like the spin antiparticles.


“Physical objects are not in space, but are spatially extended”, Albert Einstein said.   The extension is geometry.   Geometry for mass systems are defined by a center or point (frame of reference), a radius and a surface.  The space occupied can be looked at by how to measure it.  For this, there is the concept that distance and time are made up of units.  The units are small with respect to what is being measured.  Then distance (or space) is the sum of the units added together used to measure it.   It takes chronological time to measure distance.  The more distance occupied by the object the more time used.  Time and distance are traditionally thought of as positive.   But to completely describe the character of an object, the extension in both space and time has symmetry which means there is also an equal and opposite negative to the positive of space and time. Negative time is called imaginary.  Negative space is called a hole.  When space is divided by time, called velocity or speed, the ratio at the maximum for a frame of reference is a constant.  This is because space and time are different aspects of the geometry.  Chronological time will be taken as negative (imaginary) to balance using space as positive.    

If a point emits energy, a quantum of the oscillating motions leaves as the surface of a sphere traveling in the radial direction at the velocity (space/time) of c as long as there is a vacuum.  There is less information in the energy than the mass it is leaving but the energy is still bounded (quantized).  Since space is curved, light will travel around a circle.  Since space and time are related, time also is curved. How long before light gets back to the beginning point?  This depends on the size of the frame of reference.  Let the light head out in all directions and calculate how long it will take to return.  A few frame of reference results are shown in the table below.




System Name

Time Light (energy) to Go Circumference - seconds















Milky Way







*electrons travel in atoms ~1% the speed of light (Feynman)

**150,000 light years to travel across our galaxy


The volume of space occupied by the particle acts like a hole in space-time causing greater curvature than the space-time void. The larger the diameter of the volume of the particle, the bigger the hole and the more mass (density) of the particle the deeper the hole is.  If a quantum of light is absorbed by mass, the extended occupancy of space-time for the energy quantum is removed and replaced by the space-time occupancy of the mass.

Molecules - Hydrogen

Even though Hydrogen atom is stable, the electron and the proton are still separated.  They would like to get closer in order to consummate their attraction, is there a way?  The answer is yes.  The neutron is the ultimate consummation of charge attraction (elimination of charge separation).  The major asymmetry resolved in Hydrogen was charge as a balanced pair of particles.  To make the neutron, however, other asymmetry issues caused during particle separation also have to be resolved.  Another asymmetry besides charge is spin.  By pairing spin, like charged particles can balance their repulsion.  The electron achieves getting closer to a repelling charge by pairing its spin with an opposite spinning electron.   It does this in the hydrogen molecule.   One spinning electron plus the mass in the system brings a force on the other spinning electron causing it to precess about its spin axis.  However an equal and opposite precession occurs in the first electron for the same reason.  An oscillation to the paired system causes an acceleration so the pair travel in a molecular orbital around both nuclei.  The pair of like charged particles that would normally repel each other, work as team because of this pairing of opposite spins.  Humans call this valence paired electrons a chemical bond.  The molecular orbital of the paired electrons in hydrogen molecule, has allowed the electrons to balance their repulsion tendency and also hold the two repelled protons together. 

Another spin asymmetry in the lowest energy state of the Hydrogen Molecule is proton spin. There could be times of resonance of proton spin when the two are aligned (singlet) and times when they are anti-aligned (triplet) that would be lower energy (attraction of opposite spins).  Still the overall space occupied by the two hydrogen atoms as a molecule is less than that each atom alone.   The following illustrations (at three times i.e. t0, t1, and t2 during oscillation) show how pair spins (triplet state) allow the protons to get closer and like spins (singlet state) repel the protons apart.  




Singlet Hydrogen Protons                     Triplet Hydrogen Protons

Triplet Electrons                            Triplet Electrons


Hydrogen Molecules


The pairing of opposite spin electrons between atoms making molecules is called chemistry.  The two valence electrons, which are negatively charged therefore repelling each other, work together to form the chemical bonds.  Why do electrons pair[3]?  Because they spin in the opposite directions[4] (or have opposite angular momentum signs), which balances an asymmetry caused by separation from unity.  Therefore opposite spins cause attraction between centers of electrons but undergo orthogonal orbital motion (repulsion) to the attraction of opposite charge. The paired valence electrons associated with Hydrogen follow molecular orbitals instead of atomic orbitals about their large mass positive protons.  The nuclei of the atoms in a molecule act as a unit in the space-time environment.  Very large molecules like DNA[5] illustrate the complexity of cooperation that can come from resolving this simple spin asymmetry. 

Howard Kober, has invented[6] a paired gyroscope device, that utilizes the gyro’s mutual precession to get an orbital motion in space-time.  Oscillations from a central force when coupled to the paired oppositely spinning gyro’s will cause the rocket ship, housing the device, to be propelled without significant amounts of fuel. The device could travel around a planet, a star, or a galaxy as the central force.  The speed will depend on where the zero force is found to accelerate the oscillating paired precessions into an orbit of Riemannian space.  The invention seems like a life size model of valence electrons in a molecular orbital. 

Besides Hydrogen, the atom with one electron and one proton, there are different atoms that occupy about the same amount of space but have much more mass.  There are 92 naturally occurring different atoms on Planet Earth with masses up to 238 that of Hydrogen. The reason for the formation of these “metals”, called nuclear chemistry, will be discussed in the section on Helium. Within the space-time of the atomic mass, the electrons move in highly structured precession cones and orbital rings called s,p,d,f orbitals having cylindrical or spherical symmetry.  Up to 92 electrons are not only moving near the speed of light in these orbitals, the structure they are moving in makes the complex fields (aether) inside the mass appear as a sphere to an external observer due to the atoms overall spin. The electron pair using the opposite spin angular momentum principle to fill the orbitals.


When atoms collide with each other, the more massive atom dominates, so atoms of the same size coordinate their motions to exclude non-same atoms.  This is done by restricting motion (moving slower, which is called lower temperature for a large group of atoms).  When the motion is random, the phase is called gas.  At lower temperature, the phase will change to liquid having less degrees of motion freedom.  The liquid is in equilibrium with the gas phase, meaning atoms are leaving the liquid phase, because they are moving too fast, leaving at the same rate as atoms condensing with the liquid, because they are moving too slow.  In the liquid phase, other atoms can be intermingled, but under restricted conditions versus the gas phase.  With lower temperature still, the liquid becomes a solid phase.  Here the atoms have a very restricted motion, i.e. they can only vibrate or rotate.  They can’t move freely, but they are protected from other atoms.  Solids are mostly one type of atom or molecule.

The allowed motion as atoms are attracted to each other, gets more restricted, having to take into consideration the internal asymmetries that had been resolved by motions within the atom.  The fields extending in space-time around the atoms communicate these restrictions.  Motion within atoms is quantized, i.e. bounded with no freedom in space-time compared to unbounded electromagnetic radiation in space-time outside atoms.   

Neutrons - Helium

Under some conditions two hydrogen molecules can get close.  Still the overall space occupied is that of two molecules (or almost four atoms).  If the motions are right, two of the four protons are able to get closer by pairing their opposite spins.                 

_______________Two Close Hydrogen Molecules__________________  


The key to neutron formation is one pair of oppositely spinning electrons stop their spin, which therefore causes their precessing motions with respect to each other and orbital motions with respect to the protons to slow down until the electrons are absorbed by two of the protons becoming a pair of neutrons occupying significantly less space.



______________One Electron Pair Stops Spinning__________________


The proto-neutron is charge neutral.  From a mass viewpoint it is made of one proton and two electrons (938 mev + 2 x 0.51 mev = 939 mev).  Why two electrons mass?   Most likely a opposite orbit positron, an electron traveling in negative time (rather that positive charge[7]), combines with the electron when it eliminates its spin and orbiting motion. The need for the antimatter to balance space-time symmetry is eliminated when the electron spin causing separation and orbital motion ceased. 

Combining the pairing of asymmetries and attractions, the two proton mass, plus two electron mass, plus two positron mass, plus the elimination of space-time taken up by the electron and positron orbits, allowed the formation of two neutrons.  Slowing down motion, especially spin, not high pressure allowed the consummation of charge attraction.  Neutron formation seems like mass meditating on how to satisfy the needs of another mass without losing any symmetry balance already achieved in either mass.  In fact, the once occupied space-time is released as energy (non bounded oscillating field/waves in space-time without mass).  When the orbiting distances, velocity, and spins slow down, the charge story is completely satisfied. The asymmetry caused by spin and separation collapsed to the spherical symmetry unity of the neutron. 


Hydrogen molecule marriage of opposite spinning valence electrons with this additional conformance to the symmetry rules (mass-energy, space-time) created new neutrally charged mass – the twin neutrons created in the nucleus (birth chamber) of proto-Helium[8].  Condensing the additional mass into one nucleus, i.e. two protons and two neutrons, results in the size of overall space occupied by the multiple molecule/atoms system being significantly smaller.  This occurs because the other pair of spinning electrons (not the pair that stopped spinning to become neutrons) also changed their motions, i.e. from a molecular orbital to an atomic orbital. 



This new atom is called the noble gas, Helium.  The unity rules were followed and two of the electrons and two protons became neutrons with no charge – they married – the two became one.   


The significant point about this nuclear chemistry process is the increase in density of mass in space.  The process of making metals is called fusion.  The size of Helium atom is smaller than the two Hydrogen molecules from which it was made.  In fact, Helium atom takes up less space than that of a single Hydrogen atom. 

Furthermore, the largest atom is only slightly bigger than the smallest. The table below shows that the metals atomic radius varied by a factor of 10 (31 to 298) while the mass increased by a factor of 200 versus hydrogen (1 to 238).  So atoms are very efficient in the use of space-time.






(major isotope)

Atomic Radius











































The nucleus radius itself only varies between 1->7 x 10-15m for elements up to 86.  More than 99% of the mass is in the nucleus.    When the sub-atomic particles can get closer together, they release bound space–time inside the atomic spherical shell as the unbounded electromagnetic version of space-time.  This unbounded version travels in a spherical wave away from the atom at light speed.  While the mass is occupying less space, the impact on space-time overall is greatly expanded by this energy. So the “big bang” from a stars fusion reaction is a distraction from the fact the mass is occupying less space, both in the nucleus and the overall space occupied by the atom.  Most stars are 70% Hydrogen by mass and 28% Helium (including the Sun) at this point in universe evolution. The small planets, like Earth made of dense mass, would occupy a hugh amount of space-time if split (fission) back to Hydrogen atoms.


For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.  When two individuals are moving toward each other in space-time through the shortest distance of Riemannian geometry, they are moving away from each other over the longest distance.  These concepts of equilibrium or balance are present in space-time, since physical objects are spatially extended through what science now calls fields (a precursor concept was called the aether, which was limited by understanding). 

If the activity is Euclidean, i.e. along the straight line radius of a sphere, the mathematics of the attraction/repulsion relationship is governed by the dot product (converge/diverge).  If the activity is Riemannian, i.e. along the surface of the sphere, the mathematics of the relationship is governed by the cross product (curl).  The Maxwell Equations link these two processes together.  Two additional equations were required by Maxwell to capture the motions, one for the Euclidian effect on a changing Riemannian activity (dot product) and the other for a Riemannian effect on a changing Euclidian activity (curl).  The four Maxwell Equations reconcile linear and cyclic oscillations.  Linear oscillations have a beginning and end character where the motion appears to stop and then start again in the opposite direction. Cyclic oscillations have a continuous character. Attraction is linear (Euclidean) between objects.  Repulsion is the orbital interaction orthogonal to the axis between the objects (Riemannian).  Attraction and Repulsion are given mathematical form by the Maxwell equations in the objects space-time extension and motion.  When the objects are free energy only (having no mass, charge, or spin) the mathematical description is very good.  

Mass is a highly condensed form of energy.  Mass can’t occupy the same space at the same time.  The simple rules of motion for free energy, which can occupy the same space at the same time, and the high information content of motions inside mass cause mass to get very complex.  The simple precession cone of a spinning system widely separated from another, becomes more structured in space-time as respect for other nearby objects is balanced.  The combined particle motions follow a structure for the aether defined by the Schroedinger Equations.  The structure of space-time is to conserve angular momentum and balance the asymmetries, by distance from the center of the spinning frame of reference.  Orientation of the overall spinning system and types of symmetry are respected. A particle in the higher energy spin state can’t relax unless the environment provides the proper frequency.  As electrons are added to the atom, the zero force reconciling each with all the other particles, is moving with the aether geometry.  The absorbance of energy by an electron requires oscillating fields in space-time to have the correct frequency, for none other will impact the electron motion.  The individual spinning particle optimizes itself but takes into consideration the optimization of all the other particles[9].  Space-time does the reconciliation, even adjusting for the consequences of a particle stopping it spin.

 There are many equilibrium or balance illustrations in nature.  Molecules that are reacting with each other to rearrange their molecular bonds in making products (new molecules) are in thermodynamic equilibrium between the products and the reactants. The Laws of Chemical Thermodynamics are statistically true while individual particles have free and independent choices.  The balance between attraction and repulsion of mass, charge, and spin is probably the most fundamental illustration of the principles of how space-time communicates the reconciliation. A system at equilibrium, where there is no internal net force (e.g. an atom), is a natural selection of motions.  



The whole long history of God’s relationship with us human beings is a history of ever deepening communion.  It is not simply a history of unities, separations, and restored unities, but a history in which God searches for ever-new ways to commune intimately with those created in God’s own image.

Henri J. M. Nouwen in With Burning Hearts

In the beginning was the void.  There was no need for time because there was no motion.  There was nothing to move.  There was no need for distance because there was nothing to measure the size of.   The observer might call it space but it was not occupied.  The spirit called it void.  The unity of the spirit left no debate. 

Into the void a point, a particle, or a pair of objects were created.  How large was the object? How small? Which came first, energy or mass?  When it moved, which direction did it go?  The object was it’s own frame of reference.  How far away was the other object?  It takes time to measure the distance.   So chronological time was created and we start consuming it to measure space, to observe.  The shortest distance between the objects is a line.  Since space is positively curved, all linear paths are actually curved when extended long enough.  If the circular path is taken, should it be north or south, east or west?   When the objects separate, the unity has asymmetries based on how it is observed.  However, if the separations do not occur, or the objects merge back into a single object at rest, therefore not needing space-time to measure motion, the void returns and only the spirit remains. 

What are the rules?  Is there unity – one principle rule from which all other rules are derived?  I think so.  The attraction of mass, of charge and of spin (i.e. of opposite symmetries) are the rules that have to be obeyed as masses with charge and spin are created.  They follow the rules of love. Love your neighbor as yourself.  In the Christian religion, ‘Just as I have loved you, you also should love one another’ (John 13:34), was the message from Jesus and ‘And now faith, hope, and love abide, these three; and the greatest of these is love’ (I Cor 13:13), was the message from Paul. Why do opposites attract and likes repel?  The activity or motion that results provides the balance, the symmetry of the universe (the unity). Even the positively curved geometry for the attraction of mass (gravity) reminds me of Paul’s words ‘nor anything else in all creation, will be able to separate us from the love of God’ (Rom 8:39 NRSV). So the complex rules of physics, which modern science has provided mankind in our time, is another statement of love. The complex laws of human relations set down by the Jews historically were the same law of love in another abstraction or metaphor. The unity is through love.

Love is GOD.



a)      Void is what holds mass and energy, space and time. 

b)      Space and time are used to measure motions of mass and energy. They are different ways of looking at the mass and energy.  Since space is curved, time is cyclic. 

c)      Time is chronos, the chronological time required by science to measure space and separate events.  As the absolute amount of space is increased, more time is consumed.  [In general relativity, time is imaginary (negative) to balance space being positive.x2 + y2 + z2 –c2t2 = 0.]  As space is decreased, more time is released. Therefore space divided by time is a constant. This time definition is to make cyclic events truly cyclic.  The frame of reference linkage problem for space, controls time also.  If a spinning 10-12m system (atom) is related to a 10+10m system, to a 10+20m (galaxy) to the universe, a fractal like linkage is needed.  Still the cyclic processes within a frame of reference should be cyclic.   [Note: A transcendent time, kairos, usually referring to events, does not follow chronological time as defined here.   It may be useful in linking an event in one frame of reference with another. Evolution is history time, a kairos type time, rather than cyclic time.]       

d)      Velocity (space per unit time) of electromagnetic fields/waves in a vacuum is constant, c, and is a speed that mass approaches as an upper limit.  

e)      Only one mass can occupy a given space in time.  However, more than one electromagnetic field/wave, i.e. energy, can occupy a given space in time. 

f)        Energy and Mass are quantized and interchangeable i.e. E=hγ and E = mc2

g)      For every continuous symmetry of the laws of physics, there must exist a conservation law. For every conservation law, there must exist a continuous symmetry. In 1905, Emmy (Amalie) Noether proved this theorem






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Sir John Templeton


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George Gamow

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Richard P. Feynman

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Sylvia Nasar

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Henri J. M. Nouwen

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Charles Seife





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Near Zero 

W.H. Freeman




[1]  Paul Davies in About Time clearly states “nature is not symmetric between matter and antimatter, so the laws of the universe are not exactly symmetric in time.”  How to compensate for the asymmetries created and restore unity is part of this discussion.

[2] The spinning motion in space-time as a field is not well understood mathematically at this time.  As defined by Einstein for General Relativity, Gravity field does not incorporate the spin, only orbital rotation motion.  The Stanford University Einstein Project plans to add the spin modification.    

[3] The electrons pair up with opposite spin angular momentum as they travel in orbitals whether around the nucleus of the atom (atomic orbitals) or in molecular orbitals as valence bonding electrons.

[4] If there is an attraction/repulsion force associated with spin, then the opposite spins will have a difference in energy based on whether the spin orientation is aligned with the direction of spin for the system they are a part of  (electrons are in an atom that is a spinning system and one is aligned with the overall system spin, the other is anti-aligned.  The aligned spinning electron will be at the higher energy – the analogous principle in magnetism due to a spinning charge).

[5] DNA carries the message of life and is a polymer molecule having billions of repeating molecular units (4 purine or pyrimidine bases, desoxyribose sugar, and phosphate).  There are many additional asymmetries illustrated by DNA beyond those discussed in this paper.  Asymmetries that are paired within DNA are: the four bases that come in pairs, and the helix structure of the polymer is paired.  Asymmetries not paired: alpha helix (not beta), asymmetrically bonded carbons (living systems only use one of the two optical isomers). 

[6] Gyroscopic Motion Device, US Patent  6,726,985 by Howard M. Kober issued August 21, 2001

[7] Richard Feynman treated anti-matter as negative time on his time versus space diagrams in QED.  

[8] During the birth of stars, Protostars have shapes that look like molecular orbitals.

[9] John Nash theorem.